The history of rubber development?
Hancock Hancock invented the method of using machinery to obtain plastic from natural rubber in 1826.
Natural rubber found early, archaeological excavations show that in the 11th century, people in South America have used rubber balls for games and offerings. In 1493, when Columbus, the Italian Navigator, explored the Americas on the second voyage, he saw the Indians playing with a black ball, which was very high on the ground, made from the milk taken from the tree. Since then, Spain and Portugal in the conquest of Hessico and South America in the process, the rubber knowledge has been brought to Europe.
Entering the 18th century, France dispatched scientific expeditions to South America. 1736 French scientist Kandaming (Charles de Condamine) participated in the South American Scientific expedition, from Peru, some rubber products and records of the relevant information to France, the publication of the South American mainland Travel Chronicle. The book details the origin of rubber trees, local residents to collect latex methods and the use of rubber to make pots and shoes, the process has aroused people's attention.
1768, the Frenchman Mecca (P. J. Macquer) found available solvent softening rubber, made of medical supplies and hoses. 1828 Englishman Qin Toss (C. Mackintosh) was made of latex fangyubu, but the products were sticky on hot days, the cold weather became brittle and the quality was poor.
The industrial research and application of natural rubber began in early 19th century. The 1819 Scottish chemist Markintorch found that rubber can be dissolved by coal tar, and then people began to dissolve rubber with coal tar, turpentine, etc. to make waterproof cloth. Since then, the world's first rubber factory in 1820 in the United Kingdom Golasco (GLASGOW) established. In order to make rubber easy to process, 1826 Hancock (Hancock) invented a mechanical way to make natural rubber to obtain plastic. 1839 American Goodyear (Charles Goodyear) invented the rubber vulcanization method to solve the problem of raw rubber to become sticky brittle, so that rubbers have a high elasticity and toughness, rubber really into the industrial practical stage. Therefore, natural rubber has become an important industrial material, and the demand for rubber has also increased dramatically.
In the second industrial revolution in Western countries in the 1880s, the 1888 British doctor Deng Dunlop invented the inflatable tires. With the development of rubber use, the British government decided to build a base for artificial cultivation of rubber trees in the Far East, considering that rubber produced by wild rubber trees in Brazil could not meet the needs of industry. 1876 Englishman Weikham (H. Wickham) the seeds and seedlings of rubber trees were transported from Brazil to Kew (Kew Garden) of the Royal Botanic Gardens in London, where the cultivation of the rubber seedlings to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), Malaya and Indonesia was successful, It's a tough job to turn wild rubber trees into artificial cultivation.
Since then, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, the expansion of the establishment of plastic garden. 1887, Redler, Director, Singapore Botanic Garden (H. N. Ridley) invented the continuous tapping method of repeated cutting on the original cut without injuring the formation layer of the rubber tree, which corrects the old method that the rubber trees are cut down with axe and can not be used to produce gum, so that the rubber tree can be tapping continuously for several decades.
1904, the Yunnan Province of Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, the toast of India from Japan, via Singapore (a state in Malaysia, August 9, 1965, independent), the purchase of more than 8,000 plastic seedlings, brought back to plant in northern latitude 24 degrees 50 points, 960 meters above sea level in Yunnan province Yingjiang County New Town, Phoenix Mountain, Since then, the history of rubber planting in China has begun.
The history of rubber industry in the world is divided into four stages: forming period, development period, prosperous period and stable development period.
As early as 11th century, the people of South America began to use wild natural rubber. 1736 French C. Condamina participated in the French Academy of Sciences Expedition to South America and observed that the latex from the Hevea brasiliensis could be solidified into a resilient substance. Later, the rubber samples of the wild Clover trees in the Amazon basin were sent back to Paris, starting to attract European attention. 1823-Macintosh established the first waterproof blanket factory in the United Kingdom. During the same period, the Englishman, T. Hancock, found that rubber was processed repeatedly through two rotating cylinders, reducing elasticity and increasing plasticity. This discovery lays the foundation for rubber processing. He is recognized as a pioneer in the world rubber industry. 1839 American C. Goodyear found that rubber and sulfur heat can greatly increase the elasticity of rubber, no longer hot hair sticky, so that the rubber has good use performance. The discovery of rubber vulcanization method plays a key role in promoting the application of rubber. The 19th century century, the rubber industry has begun to form. It has been able to produce adhesive tape, rubber shoes, hose, plastic plate and some daily necessities.
During the late 19th century, the emergence of automobile and automobile tires promoted the development of rubber industry. 1845 British R.W Thompson first proposed a patent for inflatable tyres. 1888 British j.b Deng made the first inflatable bicycle tyre. 1895 the first inflatable car tires came out. Soon, the car tires began to commodity production. In order to improve the performance of tyres and other rubber products, j.f Palmer used the cord (see cord) for bicycle tyres in 1893. The 1900 cord began to be used on car tires. 1906, the American G. Norag used aniline as a curing promoter. 1912 S.C Mulder discovered the effect of carbon black. Soon, antioxidant also applies to rubber processing. 1916 F.H, the rubber mixer (see plastic smelting) patent, rubber processing machinery has been improved and developed accordingly. Rubber processing technology In this period has made great progress.
With the rapid development of the rubber industry, the original natural rubber used in the performance and output can not meet the needs of the middle and late 19th century began the artificial cultivation of natural rubber. By 20th century, 20-30 years of artificial cultivation of natural rubber has gradually replaced the wild rubber, the main source of natural rubber. In the First World War, due to the shortage of natural rubber, Germany began a small production of methyl rubber, mainly for the manufacture of hard rubber products. This high price of synthetic rubber, after the war ceased production. The 30 's began the commercialization of synthetic rubber production, polybutadiene rubber (that is, butyl sodium rubber), neoprene, styrene-butadiene rubber, NBR, butyl rubbers have been put into production. During the Second World War, the production of synthetic rubber and war-related rubber products such as automobile tires, airplane tires and various military vehicle tyres were greatly developed due to the demand for strategic goods.
After the Second World War in the prosperous period, the automobile and other industries in developed countries flourished and promoted the development of rubber industry in the world. 1943 Steel Cord Tire came out in 1948, France Mishlin Company successfully trial radial tire. In the same year, no tyre tires were also available. 1953, the development of the regulation of synthetic rubber developed successfully. 1956, the regulation of the construction of synthetic rubber started in the tire application, to a certain extent, can replace the use of some natural rubber. In the 1965, thermoplastic rubber began to apply to rubber shoes and adhesives. 1970, the first casting tires (with polyurethane rubber) was born. 1972, Aramid Cord began to put into production. This series of major technological breakthroughs for the rubber industry to provide the major development of raw materials and technology base. In the early 70, the production technology of rubber processing and rubber synthesis reached an unprecedented height. From the consumption of rubber, 1950 world consumption of plastic 2.3mt,1973 year reached 10.89Mt. 1950 World Tire production was 140 million sets, and 1973 soared to 650 million sets. The production of other kinds of rubber products reached a high level in the early 70 's. This is the world rubber industry development speed of the fastest period.
During the period of stable development in the 70 's, the price of oil has seriously impacted the automobile industry and the petrochemical industry, and the rubber industry has followed a crisis, and the depression has lasted until the early 80. The world's glue consumption in 1979 for 13.0mt,1982 decade fell to 11.6mt,1982 years later began to rebound slowly. The world rubber industry began to enter a relatively slow period of growth. The main focus of rubber enterprises is to expand production to improve product quality and technical level, and strive to develop new products and new technologies. With the rise of the technological revolution in the world, the wide application of electronic computers has greatly improved the technical level of rubber production. The electronic computer aided design of rubber products has promoted the transition from technology to science. The tyre pouring technology breaks through the original tyre manufacturing technology. The extensive application of thermoplastic rubber has promoted the fundamental change of traditional rubber technology.